Whoever commit criminal acts is meant to receive punishment. According to the law, prisons are the place all those who committed criminal acts are being placed. They are isolated from social community to pay for their crimes as well as not to endanger other people. This way, civilians will feel safer as well. Prison now is the most common punishment in every country. In the past though, there were various kinds of punishments for criminal acts or even just playing kiu kiu online http://188.8.131.52. There were banishment, penal bondage, corporal punishment, as well as public humiliation. There was also capital punishment.
The beginning of prison
It is about in 1750 that people started using prison as a form of punishment for those who had committed crimes. It was originally designed for criminal to self-reflect by participating in religious self-reflection. It was seen as a form of penance. At that time, the prisons contained debtors and felons. Debtors were allowed to bring their families such as children or wives into the prisons. Those were in charge of the jail or the jailers earned money by charging the inmates for legal services as well as foods and drinks. However, the system was not a good solution apparently because it was rife with corruption.
Then, there was a prison reform in the 16th Century. It was not called prison but more like house of correction. It was designed for children and women. The system was improved because medical services were provided there. And that was the first and the only one for prison to have that kind of service for its inmates.
From 18th to 19th Century, there have been various reformation of how punishment applied. For example, British justice used various types of punishment such as the pillory, fines, or whipping. Joh Howard was known as the most notable reformer. He visited prisons across England and Europe since he was ranked as High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. At that time, he found out that there were prisoners who were supposed to be out already because he had finish his time of punishment in the prison. However, they were still imprisoned because they couldn’t pay the jailers fees. At that time, he also propose to separate prisoners in different sections such as for men felons, women felons, debtors, and young offenders. Through the acts of John Howard was born the prison reform charity called Howard League for Penal Reform.
Even though there was prison reform, didn’t mean everything went smoothly. There was many disagreements from various parties. It was not until 1815 that jail fees were completely abolished. The reform kept coming from other reformers to make a better kind of punishments which were more suitable with the act of the crimes themselves. For example, the death penalty was succeeded to be repealed for theft in 1806 by Samuel Romilly. The reform kept developing and various punishments were designed as a mean of discipline.
In the past, punishment has philosophy of tooth for a tooth or eye for an eye. That being said, an equivalent harm should be done to the person who harmed another. The purpose of this type of punishment was to prevent vigilantism as well as to prevent other actions from the people whether families, gang or group who were unsatisfied if the punishment was uneven. However, this type of equivalent punishment was not easy to apply because determining how to equate different types of harm itself was difficult. As for now, being placed in a prison for committing crimes has other purposes such as to self-reflect, educate and reform the individual so they can return as productive members of society.
One of the agendas of prison reform is to develop effective programs for prisoners. The programs help prisoners to get new knowledge and skills. Later, they can use the new knowledge and skills to get a better future after leaving prison.
The governments that apply prison reform often develop academic education programs. The education programs include adult basic education, General Education Development certification, the high school diploma program, and other educational programs. Prisoners can continue their studies and do something useful during their time in prison. They can use the knowledge, certifications, and degree to find a job after leaving prison.
Career Technical Education
Career Technical Education or CTE is one of the common prison reform programs. In this program, prisoners learn and improve their skills in auto repair, carpentry, and Mansory. They can use new skills to find a better job. It also shows to the people that they have done positive and useful activities during the time in prison.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT has an important role in prison. This program helps prisoners to change their criminal behavior into a better one. CBT program is a valuable thing for prisoners with bad anger management, stress, depression, under pressure, addiction, and anxiety disorder, and many others. The goal of this program is to reduce the negative impact that leads to recidivism. Prisoners don’t have to get back to the same criminal case and get a new life when they graduate from this program and leave prison.
Most prisoners want to have a better future. They may need a job after moving out of prison. It will be hard for them to get a job without any skills and knowledge. Prison reform tries to facilitate prisoners to get skills and knowledge by following the employment preparation program. Prisoners will join classes to improve their skills, ability, and knowledge that they can use to find a job. They can learn so many things, including effective job search techniques and job readiness. They will also learn the transition to get back into society well.
Substance Use Disorder Treatment
Some prisoners may be addicted to particular substances. It will be hard for them to join any programs with that condition. The aim of prison reform is also to help them to solve their addiction problem. Prisoners who are addicted to a particular substance must join a program known as Substance Use Disorder Treatment or SUDT. The purpose of this program is to avoid relapse and help them to get back into society. The most important thing, they can free from the substance addiction program and live healthier than before. As a result, they can concentrate on managing their future well.
The government tries to develop effective programs to support prison reform. It expects that those programs give new hope for the prisoners, especially when they have to face society. They understand what they must do to live better than before. They can also do something from themselves, family, friends, and society.
Prison reform has been promoted throughout the years especially in developing countries. Why? Because in those countries, imprisonment bring more negative impacts rather than positive ones. There are many factors causing imprisonment not an effective form of criminal justice system. The main problem is economic issues. In countries that lack of human and financial resources, prison is the worst possible place after playing at situs dadu online https://daduonline888.com/ . It is the cruelest nightmare that can turn people into worse individuals than before they enter the prison.
In developing countries, prison reforms are promoted strongly as to bring positive impact of the imprisonment to the individuals, families, and society. Remember that the main purposes of prison is for retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. The purposes are clear enough to bring positive impacts. However, it doesn’t always bring positive impacts in reality especially in developing countries. More often than not, imprisonment bring other problems such as public health, poverty, social detrimental, and human rights deprivation.
Prisons are supposed to make criminals pay their debt to the society. They are supposed to be the place where criminals redeem their mistakes. Thus, they will be able to as productive and better individual. However, it is not what always happen in reality. In most developing countries, imprisonment make individuals lose their human rights. They are not treated as human sometimes. Imprisonment also bring more poverty especially when the one being imprisoned is income generator of their families. It brings another issue in the society which can lead to another crimes.
Imprisonment in most developing countries also often bring public health issues which not only put individuals in worse condition but also put prison staffs at high risk of catching diseases. Prisons are not meant to be a place to deprive individuals from their rights to have medical aid. Therefore, prison should provide sufficient medical facility. Along with that, a prison should improve sanitation, ventilation, and general system. That’s when prison reform is needed.
Imprisonment also weaken social cohesion and disrupts relationships. Family structure is significantly affected when there is a member of them who is imprisoned. The relationships between parents and children or spouses are affected. It is such a hard time to reshape and fix such a long term relationship. Prison reform is also important to reduce or minimize the cost of imprisonment especially the indirect ones such as the economic, social, and healthcare related costs. They are more difficult and immense to measure.
There are various purposes of prisons. The main purposes include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. Prisons are considered to be the most effective in justice system especially because the punishments in the past applied the philosophy of tooth for a tooth or eye for an eye.
Retribution as one of the purposes of prison means punishment for the criminals of the crimes they committed to the society. Committing crimes means they owe the society and they have to pay for it by being deprived of their freedom in the society. As for the incapacitation, it means criminals are removed from the society in order to prevent harm to reach innocent people.
Meanwhile, deterrence means preventive actions to future crimes by the criminals. This way, prisons are meant to be seen as a warning to people before committing crimes. With the existence of prisons, it is hope to give people discouragement from breaking the law. And another main purpose of prison is rehabilitation which means prisons are the place where activities designed to change criminals into law abiding citizen are taken place. Thus, prisons are not only to isolate criminals but also to provide them proper education at situs poker online http://184.108.40.206. Prisoners are also taught job skills and given psychological therapy by professionals or social workers.
Main Purposes of Prison
The main purposes of prisons are clear enough. However, they have not stressed enough throughout the years. Therefore, prisons still have variety of building designs, staffs, as well as operational system. In every country, governor heads the prison staffs. They direct how prison operates. Officers are the one who are responsible for every problems arise in the prison.
There are many possibilities for bad things to happen such as riots, mismanagement, escapes, brutality, discrimination, and many more. Every prison has different system they are under tight security. Warders are designed in short corridors to allow close supervision. Prisons also consists of different rooms such as dining hall, chapel, library, classrooms, and cells.
In most country, prison is a state subject. Prisons reforms are still proposed in many places around the world to bring justice. Every reform has its own goal. They are not simple things to do because several processes included such as legal analysis, research, advocacy, network building, and many more. Regardless of the variety of forms, the purpose of prison reform is the same which is to bring positive impact both to the criminals and the society.
Prisons and prisoners are positioned in the bottom of the criminal justice system. They also particularly get very little attention with the purpose of keeping them away from community and society. Prisons have various purposes. There are various people being placed in a prison. Some of them are those who have not even yet to be proven guilty fairly. This sounds unfair for people playing bola 88 http://220.127.116.11 but it is reality. There are many cases where people are imprisoned for far longer than maximum sentence because they didn’t receive proper trials. Lots of them even didn’t have benefit of lawyers which make the process got even longer than it’s supposed to be.
All Types of People in Prison
There are lots of poor people are placed in the prison. Several of them are mentally ill, juveniles, or just jailed because of petty crimes. There are also those who even don’t have any idea of the reasons they are placed in the prison. In underdeveloped countries, most of prisoners are poor people who are illiterate or uneducated such as prison in India. The majority of them are in pending trial or even under trials which left them remain in prisons longer than they are supposed to be. Even worse, the prison is getting more crowded. With this, they are the weakest in the society.
Prisons are not a pleasant place especially in underdeveloped countries because they are most likely to be lack of system. They are also most likely to be lack of inspection with poor implementation. Thus, prisons are the place with the worst living condition. Instead of making prisoners to be a better person, prisons impact physiological condition of them. Place in jail, they are most likely to be weaker and vulnerable even before they committed the crime. When they return to the society, they are left ruined and unreformed.
That’s why prison reform is still important until now. The system needs to be improved and fixed. Prisoners have right to receive legal safeguard. With the prison reforms, it is expected for the system to be improved by increasing monitoring of prison conditions along with enhancing legal aid practices inside. Other factors related such as probation officers, the judiciary, police, as well as prison administration to foster cooperation. Reform of prison management is needed to make a better life for prisoners. A prison is supposed to be a place for them to redeem their wrong acts and return as better people not the otherwise.
In the past, prisons were not conceived as houses of punishment. It was used as a contemporary place for individuals while awaiting trial. Then, they would be released or punished on the spot once the verdict was delivered. In 18th Century, it was not called a prison but jail. Long-term imprisonment was only applied for particular offense such as debt.
For example, if there was wealthy individual refusing to pay and play at situs judi poker http://18.104.22.168, they might be persuaded by the prospects of imprisonment. Thus, they would be more obliged to reach agreement to pay. Long-term imprisonment to the poor who had debt was not seen as rationale act because they wouldn’t be able to pay if they were imprisoned. That was why it was poor individuals who often being imprisoned a long time for small sums of money.
Harsh punishments were what applied in the past before 18th Century. However, it led to the rethink of the role of prison and its effectiveness in bringing justice. Throughout the centuries, there has been development of prison and imprisonment system. Government especially in America reconsidered the function of punishment. They included several main considerations which are more theological, practical, political and philosophical. Prison reforms were promoted to find out if imprisonment truly could deter the crimes.
Along with the promotion of prison reform, lots of people had concern for the principle as for practice emphasizing on death penalty. As for theological view, people at that time believed that some human beings were destined wickedness. Therefore, the punishment had purpose for retribution. They believed that a criminal’s soul that was debased could not be reformed.
In the past, prison was not an effective kind of punishment to deter crime. In fact, it raised another problem such as corruption because lots of prisoners especially the wealthy ones were expected to bribe their keepers so they got minimally adequate treatment. Those who had no money were often left dying or neglected. Those were dangerous settings and that’s why prison reform is necessary.
Prison reform is expected to bring decency in prison. Imprisonment should not deprive prisoners from staying healthy and being treated with dignity. The main concern of prison reform is humane treatment. Prison reform is expected to bring balance to main interests. They are the prevention of crimes, the reformation of the criminals, and the protection of the public. It is not easy to promote prison reform. It is such a challenging act but it’s not impossible to reach.
There has been prison reform issues going on right now. However, it is not something new. Prison reforms have been going on even from the 18th Century. In the past, prison was just solely a place to put criminals and isolate them from society because they were seen as threats for others. The system in the past was also not so effective in reducing criminal acts even though harsh punishments were applied to the individual who committed crimes. Aside from being imprisoned in a jail from playing dadu online http://22.214.171.124, individual who committed crimes received another harsh punishment such as whipping, labor, etc. The main purpose of punishment was solely to let criminals pay for their acts by receiving the equivalent type of harms. For example, murderers were punished by conducting public execution.
As for today, the system in the prison has improved due to various reforms. Prison is no longer a place to isolate criminals from society. It has other purposes.
Criminals are seen a threat for others as well as for themselves. Thus, they need to be separated from society as to not bring any harm to others or themselves. Subjecting criminals to be placed in a prison is also seen as rehabilitation process for them. By putting them in jail, they are expected to get repaired from their deficiencies as individuals. Therefore, they are expected to be fixed and productive in the time they return to the society after finishing their sentence.
In prison, criminals are not only isolated but educated to be better person. They are also taught various work skills so they will be productive members of society. They are also expected to learn how to treat others with respects. Also, the system in the prison stress self-discipline. The removal of criminals from society is also to keep them away from potential victims so further crimes can be prevented.
Today, not all criminals receive the same punishment. There are various considerations to decide what kind of punishment fit for criminal and their acts. For example, younger criminals who are underage who committed less severe crimes are not placed in usual prisons. Instead, they are most likely to be admitted to reform schools or boot camps. They are not meant to be isolated from the society but to receive proper training and education as well as therapy. This way, the youngster are expected to know what wrong and right and can live better when they return to the society.
It has been known that justice system is still ineffective. The purpose of imprisonment is to deter crime and exemplify to people. Prisons are supposed to be a place of retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation. However, there are issues that make the goals of imprisonment still hard to reach such as human rights. In reality, the numbers of individuals who are imprisoned keep increasing each year. Individuals who are released from prisons often face more challenges regarding to the social and practical grounds. Rejoining the community is not as easy as it looks especially when they are lack of practical skills and education.
Importance of Prison Reform
Prison reform is necessary to achieve rehabilitation as well as increase public safety. However, the strategies that have been used are still ineffective. Lots of those who have been released from the prison end up being rearrested in the future eg: from playing judi online http://126.96.36.199. Thus, public demand for changes in prison and imprisonment system. Effective justice system is not easy to achieve. Protecting and enhancing public safety is challenging especially when it has to be done while respecting human dignity.
Through prison reform, it is expected to create a constructive culture within prison system. Things that need to be address and stressed in prison system are behavior, attitudes, lifestyles, as well as personal self-control and responsibility. However, there are always challenges in achieving those goals through prison reforms. The first obstacle is to provide accessible programs that can help individuals in prison to gain knowledge, skills, positive values, and job training. Another main obstacle is to revise policies to ensure the existence of minimal barriers to maintain positive community relationships.
Prison reform has goal to provide opportunities to individuals to gain productive skills as well as equip them with positive relationships values. Those are hopefully able to help them reach their potential during the transition of their return to their community.
Another goal of prison reform is to create constructive culture during the time of incarceration. It can be achieved through prison programming that provide an imprisoned individuals with crucial skills as well as character development and education. Thus, they are expected to have more opportunities to be successful when leaving the prison. There are various programs proposed through prison reforms such as employment programs, workforce development, family management classes, life skills, religious programming, mental health, and substance abuse support. Thus, a prison is expected to host programs by providing community organizations.
Prison is not something unfamiliar to hear. In fact, it is so common because criminal acts keep increasing now all over the world. There are various type of criminal acts. Each of them has its type of punishment. Every country has their own law in determining the punishment of every criminal act dine by their citizens. Also, there has been some reforms until now. Is prison reform necessary?
In the past, punishment often apply the philosophy of eye for an eye which meant the punishments should equate the harm. For example, if individual killed another, then they should receive death penalty. However, today law is not a simple as that. In fact, applying this philosophy to punish criminal acts is not simple at all. It is not so easy to determine how to equate different types of harm.
That’s why, there is different type of punishment as well as the length of the punishment itself. Being placed in the prison is a must for criminals who committed crimes. However, they may receive different length of how long they should be imprisoned. As for severe case, death penalty is also possible for example for serial killers, multiply crimes, etc.
Importance of Prison Reform
Prison reform is important especially in the past where the system was still unorganized and inefficient. Through the reform, the punishment has been tailored to the individual convicted criminal. Today, it is not that easy to give a sentence for criminal because the judge should consider various factors. Prison reform has not been easy to make because there were many implications and complications in the process including the cost efficiency, the availability of facilities, etc. The problem is, numbers in prison has kept growing despite those reforms.
Punishment or individual who committed crimes were meant to be the preventive acts for future criminal behavior. In the past, prisoners were subjected to harsh conditions with purpose to exemplify the others. For example, they undergone public embarrassment or even public execution. Therefore, people would think twice before conducting illegal activity. Planting fear was the main purpose of harsh punishments. Besides, criminals were used as threat for themselves and others.
Prison reforms have developed and the purpose of punishment is not only to make the individual who committed crimes to pay for their acts. The purpose is also to repair individual deficiencies so they can return to the society as productive as possible. Prison is now expected as a place to gain education, work skills, and self-discipline.
The central issue to be stressed in prison reform promotion is human rights. They have been developed in the UN standards and norms. However, human right arguments are most likely to be insufficient when it comes to prison reform programmers. This happens a lot in countries with scarce financial and human resources. Most often than not, imprisonment in those countries bring detrimental impacts to the individuals. In fact, the families and communities are also impacted as well. One of the most important factors that need to be taken into account is economic factor. It is essential when it comes to prison reforms.
Here are main reasons of prison reforms:
In consideration of human rights, sentence imprisonment is not supposed to restrict of other human rights. It is supposed to be a deprivation of the basic right to liberty only. In this case, prison reform is important to ensure that the principle of human rights is respected. Prisoners still have human rights that need to be protected. They have prospect for social reintegration and rights to play poker uang asli at http://188.8.131.52.
Prison reform needs to be promoted because imprisonment often bring another problem such as poverty. This often happen in developing countries with lack of financial resources. When there is imprisonment disproportionality, it affects individuals along with their families. It forces them to live in poverty. When a member of family who generates income is imprisoned, the loss of income is inevitable.
The one who suffer them most is the families of the individual who is imprisoned. Financial loss is what the families suffer. In addition, the individual who is released often has no prospects of employment. They are often subjected to socio-economic exclusion. As the result, they become the weakest chain in the society.
Prison reform is also necessary because there is issue of public health consequences of imprisonment that needs to be stressed. In developing countries, most prisoners are likely to have existing health problems even before they enter the prisons. Lack of financial support make them suffer from medical aid deprivation. When they are imprisoned, their health is most likely to get worse. Why?
Prisons are most likely to be a place with over crowd, poor nutrition, inadequate sanitation, and very limited access to fresh air. To make it worse, exercise is often unavailable in prison. There are various causes of mortality and morbidity in prison include tuberculosis, HIV infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and many more. With this fact, even the prison staffs are at risk of catching diseases.